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Green Recovery
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Track the latest data and insights from the Energy Policy Tracker on economic stimulus packages for the energy sector around the world.

Announced Economic Stimulus Packages

To recover economically from the COVID-19 crisis, governments across the world are putting in place stimulus packages to support industries that will drive economic growth. The energy sector is a key industry to power economic activity, however, not all energy sources have the same potential to drive job and investment creation and contribute to building more resilient and sustainable economies.


Studies show that clean energy infrastructure construction generates twice as many jobs per $1 million spent as fossil fuel projects.

Source: Oxford Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment

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Country Analysis

As of December 2020, 29 major economies pledged $251 billion to fossil fuels in their recovery packages, or 53% of all public money committed to energy-intensive sector with clean energy accounting for only 35%. Find out more on the status of recovery packages across the world on a country-by-country basis in the graph below.


Polls show that globally, 71% of people believe that the climate crisis is as serious as the pandemic, and a majority in every country want a green economic recovery.

Source: Ipsos

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Latest Policies

In addition to providing low-cost finance to wind and renewable energy sectors in stimulus packages, policies that accelerate renewable energy growth are crucial for a green recovery in the long-term. Find out more about the latest energy policies across the world in the table below.


The International Monetary Fund estimates that measures put in place for a sustainable recovery could boost global GDP by 3.5% in 2023 above usual levels.

Source: The International Monetary Fund (IMF)

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About the Energy Policy Tracker 

Energy Policy Tracker is an online database that tracks how the G20 and other governments are planning to rebuild, from a climate and energy perspectiveThe database is produced by around twenty independent research organizations from around the world. With this weekly-updated tool, you can explore public money commitments supporting the production and consumption of fossil fuels and clean energy in the resource, mobility, power generation and buildings sectors. Filter by country, energy type, finance mechanisms, and other categories to find out if we are really building back better.


Fossil unconditional

Policies are classified as “fossil unconditional” if they support production and consumption of fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal, or fossil fuel-based electricity) without any climate targets or additional pollution reduction requirements.

Fossil conditional

We categorize policies as “fossil conditional” if they support production or consumption of fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal, “blue” hydrogen or fossil fuel-based electricity) with climate targets or additional pollution reduction requirements. The conditionality includes climate and pollution reduction targets as well as support to measures reducing environmental damage through carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS), end-of-the-pipe solutions such as reduction of methane leakages, extractive sites clean-up and other measures. For example, the French government made its bailout of Air France conditional on reducing the airline’s emissions. While such conditionality is a step in the right direction, the policies in this category are still providing significant funding to fossil fuels and are violating the “polluter pays principle.”

Clean unconditional

Policies are marked as “clean unconditional” if they support production or consumption of energy that is both low-carbon and has negligible impacts on the environment if implemented with appropriate safeguards. These policies support energy efficiency and renewable energy coming from naturally replenished resources such as sunlight, wind, small hydropower, rain, tides, and geothermal heat. “Green” hydrogen, active transport (cycling, walking) are also included.

Clean conditional

We classify policies as “clean conditional” (“potentially clean”) if they are stated to support the transition away from fossil fuels, but unspecific about the implementation of appropriate environmental safeguards. Examples include: large-hydropower; rail public transport and electric vehicles (electric cars, bicycles, scooters, boats etc) using multiple energy types; smart grids and technologies to better integrate renewables; hydrogen in the case of mixed, but predominantly clean sources (e.g. under Germany’s hydrogen strategy); and biofuels, biomass and biogas with a proven minimum negative impact on the environment (sometimes referred to as “advanced: or “second” or “third generation”). Without appropriate environmental safeguards, such policies can still have significant impacts. For instance, if powered with coal- or gas-based electricity, EVs can have a significant impact on the environment. Large hydropower has a negligible carbon footprint, but can damage ecosystems. And even “advanced” biofuels can have a significant water footprint.

Other energy

Policies outside of the two “fossil” and two “clean” buckets, or in both of them, fall in this umbrella category. These policies support nuclear energy (including uranium mining), “first generation” biofuels, biomass and biogas (with proven negative impact on the environment), incineration, hydrogen of unspecified origin, and multiple energy types, e.g. intertwined fossil fuels and clean energy (a sizeable group, since many policies benefit both fossil and clean energy across the board).

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